Entrance Orientation: SE
Entrance Altitude: 558 asl
Cave Formation: Horizontal
Main Research years: 1972-1974
Occupation Eras and Dates:
Meso 8000BC– B.A. 1750BC
Meso Odmut Ia: c.8100-6700 uncal BC.
Meso Odmut Ib: c.6700 – 5200 uncal BC
Neo Odmut II: c.5035+/- 100 BC ; 5005 +/- 100 BC; 4950 +/- 110 BC.
EBA Odmut VII: c.1710 +/- 80 BC
Markovic, C. 1985. The Neolithic of Montenegro. Belgrade: University of Belgrade.
Markovic, C. 1974. The stratigraphy and chronology of the Odmut cave. Archaeologia Iugoslavica XV, 7-12.
Srejovic, D. 1974. The Odmut cave – a new facet of the Mesolithic culture of the Balkan peninsula. Archaeologia Iugoslavica XV, 3-6.
Cave description: "The width and height of the mouth of the cave is 20mX14M. The mouth opens up to the southeast, i.e. to the confluence of the Vrbnica and the Piva. The base of the cave is funnel-shaped. The base ends at a distance of 11 metres from the mouth, in a narrow and short channel (2.30m wide and 2.50m high). The cave is dry and, its floor is filled with aeolic and alluvial deposits. On top of these deposits is a cultural layer of an average depth of 4 metres.” (Markovic 1974, 7)
Research Chronicles and data: 65m squared was excavated between 1972-1974 prior to construction of the Mratinje hydro-electric power plant and dam. C. 80% of the cultural deposit was excavated. “The cultural deposit was formed evenly and regularly, and the constituent layers lay almost horizontally, sloping only slightly towards the front of the cave. Seven layers, differing in colour, structure and types of finds, could be clearly distinguished.“ (Markovic 1974, 7)
Mesolithic - Odmut I
- Faunal Remains: Ibex 65%, red deer 25% and fish. (Srejovic 1974, 3)
- Stone Industry: Grey-green chert; grey or reddish stone; and flint. Mostly flakes. Some blade production from cores. Microliths. Hammerstones. Pestles.
- Bone implements: awls and chisels.
-Antler: harpoons – mostly flat and few cylindrical. Engraved bone object. Boulder decorated with ochre. (Srejovic 1974).
Early Neolithic - Odmut II
- Average thickness of about 0.70m
- Faunal Remains: 14.5% domestic faunal remains and 85.5% wild.
- Structures: Three circular fireplaces, two framed by broken stones and boulders.
- Pottery: Pottery finds from Odmut IIa and IIb typologically belong to the Starcevo Culture and to the Adriatic Early Neolithic Culture Crvena Stijena III – Smiljcici type. Mostly coarse ware pottery. Only coarse ware decorated – Barbotine, Incised and Grooved. Fine monochrome ware smaller but same forms as coarse ware.
IIa – 90% coarse ware. Deep, spherical pots with a short cylindrical neck and flat moulded rim. Silex implements based on Mesolithic forms.
IIb – Oval pots without a distinct neck were characteristic of this layer. Neolithic forms.
- Bone Implements: Only five implements – four awls and a burnisher.
Late Neolithic - Odmut III
Finds are “typologically related to the beginnings of the Early Neolithic, i.e. to the forms of the Vinca (Vinca A-B) and Kakanj Cultures. The flaked stone industry from this layer indicates cultural influences either from the Adriatic region or from central Bosnia” (Markovic 1974, 10). Several tongue-shaped ground stone axes were found in this layer.
- Pottery: Fine ware with polished or burnished surfaces of grey, dark-grey, black or, occasionally brown colour. Biconical bowls were found in several variants. The decoration of the bowls consisted mainly of fluting although, incised decoration appears occasionally.
Final Neolithic/Transition - Odmut IV
Longer phase, local culture of the Final Neolithic. Associated with Vinca C.
- Pottery: Undecorated coarseware. Fine ware, usually with polished surfaces but without sheen, grey, dark-grey, or brown in colour. Most common forms were deep, oval pots with or without an emphasised neck, biconical and conical bowls. Most decoration, incised or fluted, found on bowls.
- Tools: Arrowheads and long blades.
- Antler: Several antler implements, possibly awls.
Endolithic - Odmut V
Less pottery, not related to that of Odmut IV, close to ware from Morava and Danubian regions. Beginning of Eneolithic.
- Pottery: Coarse ware with ring-like reinforcement. Some decorated with shallow circular depressions or impressions of nails or fingers.
- Tools: Broad blades with retouch. Simple bone awls.
Developed and Late Endolithic - Odmut VI
“pottery with a roughened surface, made of insufficiently purified and poorly fired clay.” (Markovic 1974, 11)The pottery is connected to the Lasinja Culture. There is an increasing amount of carved pottery characteristic of the Eneolithic of the Adriatic.
- Coarse ware: large oval or large-bellied pots with or without distinctly marked neck. Only few decorated with fingers, incisions or grooves. Two fragments of coarse ware were found with cord ornaments. Fine ware: cups with vertical handle, deep biconical bowls, vessels with long cylindrical necks and flared rims. Incision, pricking, grooving and carving decoration.
- Tools: Flaked stone tools rare. bone tools are slightly more numerous.
Early Bronze Age - Odmut VII
Possibly Early Bronze Age. 1710 +/- 80 BC.
- Coarse ware: large undecorated pots, deep cups with vertical handles, large shallow bowls with a wide funnel shaped neck and four handles set crosswise.
- Tools: Numerous bone implements – awl and wide spatulae.