Location: Euboea Island
Entrance Orientation: NNE
Entrance Altitude: 450m asl
Cave Formation: Horizontal
Main Research years:
Occupation Eras and Dates:
LNI-II; EHII; LHIII; LN.
5294-5208BC; 5217-5062BC; 4776-4628BC; 4711–4529BC; 3675-3528BC.
Trantalidou, K., Belegrinou, E., and Andreasen, N. 2010. Pastoral societies in the southern Balkan Peninsula: The evidence from caves occupied during the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic era, Phenomena of Cultural Borders and Border Cultures across the Passage of the Time. In Anodos 10, 295-320. Trnava University.
Cave Description: This cave is located SE of the town of Therrounia. It is positioned above the deep narrow gorge of the stream Hondros.
Research Chronicles and Data: The depths of the deposits in this cave are about 3-4m, however in trench C, it increases to 4.35m. In trench C, 12 living floors were uncovered. In the LNI, several floors were discovered in close succession suggesting intensive use for a short period of time. On these floors ash hearths have also been excavated. Obsidian blades dominate the lithic industries, as well as at Kitsos (Gr11) and the presence of debitage suggests that some were worked onsite.
Cave Uses: Storage (A.b) - This cave probably had seasonal usage, in that it was occupied from spring to autumn. When the cave was not in use it was probably used for burials. In the Late Neolithic, the cave was used for the storage of food as evident from the finds of more than 700 pithoi. In LHIII, the classical period, there are some cult indications. Although there is no clear or definitive archaeological evidence about systematic cult practice in the late Neolithic, ritual ceremonies are not excluded. Figurines have been found, and could have had a variety of uses e.g. religious, sympathetic magic, or talismans. The final use of the cave seems to have been for keeping domestic animals, although seasonal pastoral use is not excluded. There is plenty of evidence for seasonal transhumance in recent times.