Location: Mt. Ososcica
Entrance Orientation: W
Entrance Altitude: 268 m asl
Cave Formation: Horizontal
Main Research years: 1950s; 2004
Occupation Eras and Dates: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Early Neolithic, Middle Neolithic
Komso, D., Miracle, P.T., and Boschian, G. Hrvatski arheoloski godisnjak 1/2004, 172-175.
Cave Description: On western slopes of Mt. Ososcica. Vela Cave is located on the steep western slopes of the mountain of Osorčica, below the highest peak Televrin, in the middle belt of rocks on the island of Losinj. Although the cave is located just a few hundred meters away from the coast, steepness of the terrain and dense underbrush hinder access to the sea. Its entrance is elongated and oval, the height of 8 m and a width of 7 meters, oriented to the west, at an altitude of 268m. The front room is composed of jernog channels total length of 26 m. The cave is the widest and the highest at the entrance, and the channel becomes progressively ears and lower the interior. At the end of the input channels, through narrow and low passage in the rock length 2.5m, has a less simple, the size of 6x4 m, of which the south continues to narrow and low channel visible length of 4 m. Deposited sediments have been partially eroded in front of the cave .
Research Chronicles and Data: 1950s investigated by Vladimir Mirosavljevic. In 2004 as part of a project “Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Sites in the North Adriatic”, the cleaning of the profiles of old test digs was carried out, and a small shovel test pit was dug, in order to obtained detailed information about the stratigraphy of the deposits. Several Pleistocene layers were determined, from which finds of fauna and stone artefacts were taken. On these lies a layer with a great number of vineyard snails (Helix pomatia), generally classified into the Mesolithic. Above this is an early Neolithic level from which finds of impresso ceramics were collected, with fauna, and a few remains of stone artefacts. Above them lie several prehistoric layers, from which we collected finds of ceramics, fauna and stone artefacts. From all the layers, samples were taken for radiocarbon and sedimentological analyses.
The third horizon makes red-brown compact clay with rare small fragments of limestone. The thickness is 10 to 15 cm and zabilijezen exclusively in the first probes were collected fragments Impresso pottery from the Early Neolithic, some stone izradevina (including drill? The prismatic cutting edge), animal bones (two-thirds consists of the remains of goats / sheep, follow the remains of the boar / pigs, deer and small game fish), rare remains of vineyard land snails (collected mainly in contact with the Mesolithic horizon, which probably belong), relatively frequent remains of sea shells and a part of human children's calotte. The cave was probably used on many occasions as a short-term seasonal livestock habitat, with a large part of the economy based on hunting and fishing.
The second horizon consists of several layers of gray and white ash. Deblijine is 40 cm in the probe 1, about 60 cm in the probe 2 (the filling of the pit dug in the Pleistocene layers) and 20 centimeters in the probe 3. These layers, layers of very similar assemblage and other Istrian localities were probably deposited from the incineration animal faeces and suggest keeping animals in the cave. The horizon he frequently aberrantly animal channels and pits. Projiupljeni the remains of pottery from the Early Neolithic (Impressed Ware ceramics), but also a few fragments of pottery from the Middle Neolithic, perhaps from later periods, and izradevine of chipped stone (mainly treated prismatic sjevica made of chert visokovalitetnog), animal bones (mostly the remains of goats / sheep), a few remains of sea shells, very few remains of terrestrial snails, a few human remains and charcoal. Increased incidence remains goats / sheep and reducing the number compared to the wild animals to a third horizon, and their preservation in the cave, indicating a change in economic strategy. The problem of dating this horizon will clarify the results of absolute dating.
Cave Uses: Agropastoral (A.a) - Short-term Seasonal herding.