Entrance Altitude: 856 m asl
Cave Formation: Horizontal
Cave Map: N/A
Main Research Years: 1966-67
Occupation Eras and Dates: MN; Ch; BA; IA; Ro; Early Middle Ages.
Korkuti, M. 1995. Neolithikum und Chalkolithikum in Albanien. Mainz am Rhein: Internationale Interakademische Kommission fur die Erforschung der Vorgeschichte des Balkans, Monographieren 4. 166-167; 223-225.
Cave Description: The caves settlement of Tren is located on the southwestern tip of Prespa Lake in Bez. Korca, 856m above sea level. The cave has a wide entrance, which leads to a 9 m long passage, at the end is a 3.6 square meter room. A small corridor, which leads to a second even larger size room opens on its southern side.
Research Chronicles and Data: The terrace above the cave was also inhabited, the excavations of 1966 and 1967 aimed to define inside and outside the cave's five settlement periods, the oldest belonging to the Neolithic period. The oldest finds are attributable to the Middle Neolithic period. Therefore, the following phases are evident at Tren:
Tren I - Middle Neolithic
Tren II - Chalcolithic
Tren III - Bronze Age
Tren IV - Iron Age
Tren V - Roman
Tren VI - Early Middle Ages
The earliest settlement period is the Middle Neolithic, Tren I, is evident from Impresso ware vessels. They were found alongside other prehistoric material. These fragments come from vessels with medium thick walls and tempered with fine sand, they are of a matte, dark gray and light brown color, with four of them carrying fingerprint pattern. The three other fragments show fingernail impressions, In one fragment, these are set in very tight rows. Thus the fragments with Impresso trim can be classified from Tren to the beginning of the Middle Neolithic.
The Chalcolithic preiod of occupation of the cave is best represented in a cultural layer that was composed of a mixture of gravel 0.5m thick with clay and some sand. In the area just above the cave, the Chalcolithic period is shown by a thin 0.25-0.3m cultural layer of clay and sand.
In the eastern profile Qu I, Section A, followed in succession:
The first (top) layer: consists of humus, which is mixed with gravel and a few pottery sherds. This black layer is 0.15m-0.2m thick.
The second layer: composed of clay with a lot of sand and gravel and contained a few ceramic fragments. The layer is gray and 0.7m-0.8m thick.
The third layer:consists of clay and sand and is mixed some large stones and pottery fragments with gravel. It is dark brown and 0.35m-0.8m thick. The remains found of hearths were found in two places.
The fourth layer: has clay with a little sand and gravel mixed with soil containing burnt ceramic fragments. It has a reddish colour and a depth of 0.15m-0.2m
The fifth layer: consists of 0.3m thick gray-brown clay with very little vessel fragments.
The fourth and fifth layer: material contained Chalcolithic material.
The profile of Northern Qu XIII, section B is to be broken down as follows:
The first (top) layer: black humus, which is mixed with a little gravel and single ceramic fragments. It is 0.3m thick.
The second layer: consists of clay and many stones, was dark gray, and 0.2 m - 0.3 m thick. in which there were many vessels in situ.
The third layer: is made of mud, containing vessel fragments and was light brown and 0.25 m to 0.35 m thick.
The fourth layer: represents the bedrock of the hill.
The third layer: contained finds from the Chalcolithic.
Settlement remains from the Chalcolithic period are not available and the number of artefacts found is not great. Among them are two flat stone axes, a number of flint blades and debitage, and several millstones.
Cave Uses: Agropastoral (A.a) -